Federal Act on the Amendment of the Swiss Civil Code (OR) in english

Federal Act on the Amendment of the Swiss Civil Code - 2023

Art. 1 A. Conclusion of the contractI. Mutual expression of intent1. In general
Art. 2 2. Secondary terms
Art. 3 II. Offer and acceptance1. Offer subject to time limit
Art. 4 2. Offer without time limit a. In the parties’ presence
Art. 5 b. In the parties’ absence
Art. 6 3. Implied acceptance
Art. 6a 3a. Unsolicited goods
Art. 7 4. Non-binding offer, announcement of prices, display
Art. 8 5. Publicly promised remuneration
Art. 9 6. Withdrawal of offer and acceptance
Art. 10 III. Entry into effect of a contract concluded in the parties’ absence
Art. 11 B. Form of contractsI. Formal requirements and significance in general
Art. 12 II. Written form1. Form required by lawa. Scope
Art. 13 b. Effect
Art. 14 c. Signature
Art. 15 d. Mark in lieu of signature
Art. 16 2. Form stipulated by contract
Art. 17 C. Cause of obligation
Art. 18 D. Interpretation of contracts, simulation
Art. 19 E. Terms of the contractI. Definition of terms
Art. 20 II. Nullity
Art. 21 III. Unfair advantage
Art. 22 IV. Agreement to conclude a contract
Art. 23 F. Defect in consentI. Error1. Effect
Art. 24 2. Cases of mistake
Art. 25 3. Invoking error contrary to good faith
Art. 26 4. Error by negligence
Art. 27 5. Incorrect intermediation
Art. 28 II. Fraud
Art. 29 III. Duress 1. Consent to contract
Art. 30 2. Definition of duress
Art. 31 IV. Defect of consent negated by ratification of the contract
Art. 32 I. With authorisation1. In generala. Effect of agency
Art. 33 b. Scope of authority
Art. 34 2. Authority arising from a transactiona. Restriction and revocation
Art. 35 b. Effect of death, incapacity, etc.
Art. 36 c. Return of the instrument conferring authority
Art. 37 d. Time from which end of authority takes effect
Art. 38 II. Without authority1. Ratification
Art. 39 2. Failure to ratify
Art. 40 III. Reservation of special provisions
Art. 40a H. Revocation in door-to-door sales and similar contractsI. Scope of application
Art. 40b II. General principle
Art. 40c III. Exceptions
Art. 40d IV. Duty to inform
Art. 40e V. Revocation1. Form and time limit
Art. 40f 2. Consequences
Art. 40g
Art. 41 Section Two: Obligations in TortA. General principles I. Conditions of liability
Art. 42 II. Determining the damage
Art. 43 III. Determining compensation
Art. 44 IV. Grounds for reducing compensation
Art. 45 V. Special cases1. Homicide and personal injurya. Damages for homicide
Art. 46 b. Damages for personal injury
Art. 47 c. Satisfaction
Art. 48 2. ...
Art. 49 3. Injury to personality rights
Art. 50 VI. Multiple liable parties1. In tort
Art. 51 2. On different legal grounds
Art. 52 VII. Self-defence, necessity, legitimate use of force
Art. 53 VIII. Relationship with criminal law
Art. 54 B. Liability of persons lacking capacity to consent
Art. 55 C. Liability of employers
Art. 56 D. Liability for animalsI. Damages
Art. 57 II. Seizure of animals
Art. 58 E. Liability of property ownersI. Damages
Art. 59 II. Safety measures
Art. 59a F. Liability in respect of cryptographic keys
Art. 60
Art. 61
Art. 62 Obligations deriving from Unjust Enrichment
Art. 63 II. Payment in satisfaction of a non-existent obligation
Art. 64 B. Scope of restitutionI. Obligations of the unjustly enriched party
Art. 65 II. Rights in respect of expenditures
Art. 66 C. Exclusion of restitution
Art. 67 D. Prescription
Art. 68 Section One: Performance of ObligationsA. General principlesI. Performance by the obligor in person
Art. 69 II. Object of performance1. Part payment
Art. 70 2. Indivisible performance
Art. 71 3. Debt of generic object
Art. 72 4. Obligations involving choice of performance
Art. 73 5. Interest
Art. 74 B. Place of performance
Art. 75 C. Time of performanceI. Open-ended obligations
Art. 76 II. Obligations subject to time limit1. Monthly time limits
Art. 77 2. Other time limits
Art. 78 3. Sundays and public holidays
Art. 79 III. Performance during business hours
Art. 80 IV. Extension of the time limit
Art. 81 V. Early performance
Art. 82 VI. In bilateral contracts1. Order of performance
Art. 83 2. Allowance for unilateral insolvency
Art. 84 D. PaymentI. National currency
Art. 85 II. Allocation1. Of part payments
Art. 86 2. In the case of multiple debtsa. At the discretion of debtor or creditor
Art. 87 b. By law
Art. 88 III. Receipt and return of borrower’s note1. Right of the debtor
Art. 89 2. Effect
Art. 90 3. Return of borrower’s note not possible
Art. 91 E. Default of obligeeI. Requirement
Art. 92 II. Effect1. On obligations relating to objectsa. Right to deposit object
Art. 93 b. Right to sell
Art. 94 c. Right to take back the object
Art. 95 2. On other obligations
Art. 96 F. Performance prevented for other reasons
Art. 97 A. Failure to performI. Obligor’s duty to compensate1. In general
Art. 98 2. Obligation to act or refrain from action
Art. 99 II. Scope of liability and compensation1. In general
Art. 100 2. Exclusion of liability
Art. 101 3. Liability for associates
Art. 102 B. Default of obligorI. Requirement
Art. 103 II. Effect1. Liability for accidental damage
Art. 104 2. Default interesta. In general
Art. 105 b. Debtor in default on payments of interest, annuities and gifts
Art. 106 3. Excess damage
Art. 107 4. Withdrawal and damagesa. Subject to time limit
Art. 108 b. Without time limit
Art. 109 c. Effect of withdrawal
Art. 110 Section Three: Obligations Involving Third PartiesA. Subrogation
Art. 111 B. Guarantee of performance by third party
Art. 112 C. Contracts conferring rights on third partiesI. In general
Art. 113 II. In the case of liability insurance
Art. 114 Title Three: Extinction of ObligationsA. Extinction of accessory rights
Art. 115 B. Extinction by agreement
Art. 116 C. NovationI. In general
Art. 117 II. In relation to current accounts
Art. 118 D. Merger
Art. 119 E. Performance becomes impossible
Art. 120 F. Set-offI. Requirement1. In general
Art. 121 2. Under surety
Art. 122 3. In contracts conferring rights on third parties
Art. 123 4. Where the debtor is bankrupt
Art. 124 II. Effect of set?off
Art. 125 III. Exceptions
Art. 126 IV. Waiver
Art. 127 G. PrescriptionI. Periods1. Ten years
Art. 128 2. Five years
Art. 128a 2a. Twenty years
Art. 129 3. Mandatory prescriptive periods
Art. 130 4. Start of prescriptive perioda. In general
Art. 131 b. For periodic obligations
Art. 132 5. Computation of prescriptive periods
Art. 133 II. Effect on accessory claims
Art. 134 III. Prevention and suspension of the prescriptive period
Art. 135 IV. Interruption of prescriptive period1. Grounds for interruption
Art. 136 2. Effect of interruption on co-obligors
Art. 137 3. Start of new prescriptive perioda. In the event of acknowledgment or judgment
Art. 138 b. By action of the creditor
Art. 139 V. Prescription of the right of recourse
Art. 140 VI. Prescription of a charge on chattels
Art. 141
Art. 142 VIII. Application
Art. 143 Section One: Joint and Several ObligationsA. Joint and several debtorsI. Requirement
Art. 144 II. Relationship between creditor and debtor1. Effecta. Liability of the debtors
Art. 145 b. Objections by the debtors
Art. 146 c. Action taken by individual debtors
Art. 147 2. Extinction of the joint and several obligation
Art. 148 III. Relationship between joint and several debtors1. Participation
Art. 149 2. Subrogation
Art. 150 B. Joint and several creditors
Art. 151 Section Two: Conditional ObligationsA. Condition precedentI. In general
Art. 152 II. Before the condition occurs
Art. 153 III. Benefits enjoyed in the interim
Art. 154 B. Condition subsequent
Art. 155 C. Joint provisions I. Fulfilment of the condition
Art. 156 II. Prevention in bad faith
Art. 157 III. Inadmissible conditions
Art. 158 Earnest Money, Forfeit Money, Salary Deductions and Contractual Penalties
Art. 159 B. ...
Art. 160 I. Rights of the creditor1. Relation between penalty and contractual performance
Art. 161 2. Relation between penalty and damage
Art. 162 3. Forfeiture of part payments
Art. 163 II. Amount, nullity and reduction of the penalty
Art. 164 I. Requirements1. Voluntary assignmenta. Admissibility
Art. 165 b. Form of the contract
Art. 166 2. Assignment by law or court order
Art. 167 II. Effect of assignment1. Position of the debtor a. Payment made in good faith
Art. 168 b. Refusal of payment and deposit
Art. 169 c. Objections raised by the debtor
Art. 170 2. Transfer of preferential and accessory rights, documents and evidence
Art. 171 3. Warrantya. In general
Art. 172 b. In the case of assignment by way of satisfaction
Art. 173 c. Scope of liability
Art. 174 III. Special provisions
Art. 175 B. Assumption of debtI. Debtor and debt acquirer
Art. 176 II. Contract between debt acquirer and creditor1. Offer and acceptance
Art. 177 2. Lapse of offer
Art. 178 III. Effect of change of debtor1. Accessory rights
Art. 179 2. Objections
Art. 180 IV. Failure of debt assumption contract
Art. 181 V. Assignment of assets or a business with assets and liabilities
Art. 182 VI. ...
Art. 183 VII. In relation to division of estate and land purchase
Art. 184 Title Six: Sale and ExchangeSection One: General ProvisionsA. Rights and obligations of the parties in general
Art. 185 B. Benefits and risks
Art. 186 C. Reservation of cantonal law
Art. 187 Section Two: The Chattel SaleA. Object
Art. 188 B. Seller’s obligations I. Transfer1. Transfer costs
Art. 189 2. Transport costs
Art. 190 3. Delivery defaulta. Withdrawal from commercial transactions
Art. 191 b. Liability for and computation of damages
Art. 192 II. Warranty of title 1. Warranty obligation
Art. 193 2. Procedurea. Third-party notice
Art. 194 b. Surrender of object without court decision
Art. 195 3. Rights of the buyera. Full dispossession
Art. 196 b. Partial dispossession
Art. 196a c. Objects of cultural heritage
Art. 197 III. Warranty of quality and fitness 1. Object of the warrantya. In general
Art. 198 b. In livestock trading
Art. 199 2. Exclusion of warranty
Art. 200 3. Defects known to the buyer
Art. 201 4. Notice of defects a. In general
Art. 202 b. In livestock trading
Art. 203 5. Intentional deceit
Art. 204 6. Remote sale and purchase
Art. 205 7. Types of action a. Rescission or reduction
Art. 206 b. Substitute performance
Art. 207 c. Rescission when the object is destroyed
Art. 208 8. Rescission of the contract of salea. In general
Art. 209 b. For sales of batches or sets of objects
Art. 210 9. Prescription
Art. 211 C. Obligations of the buyer I. Payment of the sale price and acceptance of the object
Art. 212 II. Fixing the price
Art. 213 III. Time when price falls due, interest
Art. 214 IV. Buyer in default 1. Seller’s right of withdrawal
Art. 215 2. Liability for and computation of damages
Art. 216 Section Three: The Sale of Immovable Property A. Formal requirements
Art. 216a Abis. Duration and priority notice
Art. 216b Ater. Inheritance and assignment
Art. 216c Aquater. Rights of pre-emptionI. Pre-emption events
Art. 216d II. Effect of pre-emption, conditions
Art. 216e III. Exercise, forfeiture
Art. 217 B. Conditional purchase and reservation of ownership
Art. 218 C. Agricultural properties
Art. 219 D. Warranty
Art. 220 E. Benefits and risks
Art. 221 F. Reference to chattel sale
Art. 222 Section Four: Special Types of SaleA. Sale by sample
Art. 223 B. Sale on approval or inspectionI. Effect
Art. 224 II. Inspection on the seller’s premises
Art. 225 III. Inspection on the buyer’s premises
Art. 226
Art. 226 C. ...
Art. 226e
Art. 226
Art. 226l
Art. 226m
Art. 227
Art. 227
Art. 228
Art. 229 D. AuctionsI. Conclusion of the purchase
Art. 230 II. Avoidance
Art. 231 III. Binding nature of bids at auction1. In general
Art. 232 2. Immovable property
Art. 233 IV. Cash payment
Art. 234 V. Warranty
Art. 235 VI. Transfer of ownership
Art. 236 VII. Cantonal provisions
Art. 237 Section Five: The Contract of ExchangeA. Reference to provisions governing purchase
Art. 238 B. Warranty
Art. 239 Title Seven: The GiftA. Definition
Art. 240 B. Personal capacityI. Of the donor
Art. 241 II. Of the recipient
Art. 242 C. Establishing the giftI. From hand to hand
Art. 243 II. Promise of a gift
Art. 244 III. Effect of acceptance
Art. 245 D. Conditions and provisosI. In general
Art. 246 II. Fulfilment of provisos
Art. 247 III. Reversion clause
Art. 248 E. Liability of the donor
Art. 249 F. Annulment of giftsI. Claim for return of gift
Art. 250 II. Revocation and invalidation of a promise to give
Art. 251 III. Prescription and heirs’ right of action
Art. 252 IV. Death of the donor
Art. 253 Section One: General ProvisionsA. Definition and scope of applicationI. Definition
Art. 253a II. Scope of application1. Residential and commercial premises
Art. 253b 2. Provisions on protection against unfair rents
Art. 254 B. Tie-in transactions
Art. 255 C. Duration
Art. 256 D. Obligations of the landlord I. In general
Art. 256a II. Duty of disclosure
Art. 256b III. Charges and taxes
Art. 257 E. Obligations of the tenant or lesseeI. Payment of rent and accessory charges1. Rent
Art. 257a 2. Accessory chargesa. In general
Art. 257b b. Residential and commercial premises
Art. 257c 3. Payment deadlines
Art. 257d 4. Tenant in arrears
Art. 257e II. Security furnished by the tenant
Art. 257f III. Care and consideration
Art. 257g IV. Duty of notification
Art. 257h V. Duty of tolerance
Art. 258 F. Non-performance or defective performance when object handed over
Art. 259 G. Defects during the contractI. Obligation of tenant to carry out minor cleaning and repairs
Art. 259a II. Rights of the tenant 1. In general
Art. 259b 2. Remedy of defectsa. General principle
Art. 259c b. Exception
Art. 259d 3. Reduction of rent
Art. 259e 4. Damages
Art. 259f 5. Assumption of litigation
Art. 259g 6. Deposit of renta. General principle
Art. 259h b. Release of deposited rent
Art. 259i c. Procedure
Art. 260 H. Renovations and modificationsI. By the landlord
Art. 260a II. By the tenant
Art. 261 J. Change of ownershipI. Alienation of the object
Art. 261a II. Conferral of limited rights in rem
Art. 261b III. Entry under priority notice in the land register
Art. 262 K. Sub-letting
Art. 263 L. Transfer of lease to a third party
Art. 264 M. Early return of the object
Art. 265 N. Set-off
Art. 266 O. End of leaseI. Expiry of agreed duration
Art. 266a II. Notice of termination and termination dates1. In general
Art. 266b 2. Immovable and movable structures
Art. 266c 3. Residential premises
Art. 266d 4. Commercial premises
Art. 266e 5. Furnished rooms and parking spaces
Art. 266f 6. Chattels
Art. 266g III. Extraordinary notice1. Good cause
Art. 266h 2. Bankruptcy of the tenant or lessee
Art. 266i 3. Death of the tenant or lessee
Art. 266k 4. Chattels
Art. 266l IV. Required form of notice for residential and commercial premises1. In general
Art. 266m 2. Family residencea. Notice given by the tenant
Art. 266n b. Notice given by the landlord
Art. 266o 3. Void notice
Art. 267 P. Return of the objectI. In general
Art. 267a II. Inspection of object and notification of tenant or lessee
Art. 268 Q. Landlord’s special lienI. Scope
Art. 268a II. Objects belonging to third parties
Art. 268b III. Exercise of lien
Art. 269 A. Unfair rentI. General rule
Art. 269a II. Exceptions
Art. 269b B. Index-linked rent
Art. 269c C. Periodical rent increases
Art. 269d D. Rent increases and other unilateral amendments by the landlord
Art. 270 E. Challenge to rentI. Request for rent reduction1. Initial rent
Art. 270a 2. During the lease
Art. 270b II. Challenging rent increases and other unilateral amendments by the landlord
Art. 270c III. Challenging index-linked rent
Art. 270d IV. Challenging periodical rent increases
Art. 270e F. Continued validity of lease during challenge proceedings
Art. 271 A. Notice open to challenge I. In general
Art. 271a II. Notice served by the landlord
Art. 272 B. Extension of the leaseI. Tenant’s entitlement
Art. 272a II. Exclusion of extension
Art. 272b III. Length of extension
Art. 272c IV. Continued validity of lease
Art. 272d V. Notice given during extension
Art. 273
Art. 273a D. Family residence
Art. 273b E. Sub-letting
Art. 273c F. Mandatory provisions
Art. 274274
Art. 275 A. Definition and scope of applicationI. Definition
Art. 276 II. Scope of application1. Residential and commercial premises
Art. 276a 2. Agricultural lease
Art. 277 B. Inventory
Art. 278 C. Obligations of the lessorI. Hand-over of object
Art. 279 II. Major repairs
Art. 280 III. Charges and taxes
Art. 281 D. Obligations of the lesseeI. Payment of rent and accessory charges1. In general
Art. 282 2. Lessee in arrears
Art. 283 II. Care, consideration and maintenance1. Care and consideration
Art. 284 2. Normal maintenance
Art. 285 3. Breach of duty by the lessee
Art. 286 III. Duty of notification
Art. 287 IV. Duty of tolerance
Art. 288 E. Rights of the lessee on non-performance or defective performance
Art. 289 F. Renovations and modificationsI. By the lessor
Art. 289a II. By the lessee
Art. 290 G. Change of ownership
Art. 291 H. Sub-letting
Art. 292 J. Transfer of usufructuary lease to a third party
Art. 293 K. Early return of the object
Art. 294 L. Set-off
Art. 295 M. End of usufructuary leaseI. Expiry of agreed duration
Art. 296 II. Notice of termination and termination dates
Art. 297 III. Extraordinary notice1. Good cause
Art. 297a 2. Bankruptcy of the lessee
Art. 297b 3. Death of the lessee
Art. 298 IV. Required form of notice for residential and commercial premises
Art. 299 N. Return of the objectI. In general
Art. 299a II. Inspection of object and notification of lessee
Art. 299b III. Replacement of inventory items
Art. 299c O. Lessor’s lien
Art. 300 P. Protection against termination of usufructuary leases of residential and commercial premises
Art. 301 Q. Procedure
Art. 302 R. Livestock leaseI. Rights and obligations of the tenant farmer
Art. 303 II. Liability
Art. 304 III. Termination
Art. 305 Title Nine: The LoanSection One: The Loan for UseA. Definition
Art. 306 B. EffectI. Borrower’s right of use
Art. 307 II. Maintenance costs
Art. 308 III. Liability of joint borrowers
Art. 309 C. TerminationI. Loan for designated use
Art. 310 II. Loan for non-designated use
Art. 311 III. Death of the borrower
Art. 312 Section Two: The Fixed-Term LoanA. Definition
Art. 313 B. EffectI. Interest1. Liability for interest
Art. 314 2. Rules governing interest
Art. 315 II. Prescriptive period for claims for delivery and acceptance
Art. 316 III. Insolvency of the borrower
Art. 317 C. Goods in lieu of money
Art. 318 D. Timing of repayment
Art. 319 Section One: The Individual Employment ContractA. Definition and conclusionI. Definition
Art. 320 II. Creation
Art. 321 B. Obligations of the employeeI. Duty to work in person
Art. 321a II. Duty of care and loyalty
Art. 321b III. Disclosure and hand-over of benefits received and work produced
Art. 321c IV. Overtime
Art. 321d V. Compliance with general directives and instructions
Art. 321e VI. Employee’s liability
Art. 322 C. Obligations of the employerI. Salary1. Type and amount in general
Art. 322a 2. Share in the business results
Art. 322b 3. Commissiona. Entitlement
Art. 322c b. Statement
Art. 322d 4. Bonuses
Art. 323 II. Payment of salary1. Payment terms and periods
Art. 323a 2. Withholding of salary
Art. 323b 3. Salary protection
Art. 324 III. Salary in the event work is not possible1. Failure by employer to accept performance
Art. 324a 2. Employee prevented from workinga. General principle
Art. 324b b. Exceptions
Art. 325 IV. Assignment and pledge of salary claims
Art. 326 V. Piece work 1. Work allocation
Art. 326a 2. Piece work rates
Art. 327 VI. Work tools, materials and expenses1. Work tools and materials
Art. 327a 2. Expensesa. In general
Art. 327b b. Motor vehicle
Art. 327c c. Payment dates
Art. 328 VII. Protection of the employee’s personality rights1. In general
Art. 328a 2. Shared household
Art. 328b 3. When handling personal data
Art. 329
Art. 329a 2. Holidaysa. Annual entitlement
Art. 329b b. Reduction
Art. 329c c. Consecutive weeks, timing
Art. 329d d. Salary
Art. 329e 3. Leave for extracurricular youth work
Art. 329f 4. Maternity leave
Art. 329g 5. Paternity leave
Art. 329h 6. Leave to care for family members
Art. 329i 7. Leave to care for a child whose health is seriously impaired by illness or accident
Art. 329j 8. Adoption leave
Art. 330 IX. Other duties1. Security
Art. 330a 2. Reference
Art. 330b 3. Duty of information
Art. 331
Art. 331a II. Beginning and end of insurance cover
Art. 331b III. Assignment and pledge
Art. 331c IV. Reservations on medical grounds
Art. 331d V. Promotion of home ownership1. Pledge
Art. 331e 2. Early withdrawal
Art. 331f 3. Restrictions if the benefits scheme has a cover deficit
Art. 332 E. Right to inventions and designs
Art. 332a
Art. 333
Art. 333a 2. Consultation of employees’ organisation
Art. 333b 3. Transfer of the company on insolvency
Art. 334 G. End of the employment relationshipI. Fixed-term employment relationship
Art. 335 II. Open-ended employment relationship 1. Notice in general
Art. 335a 2. Notice periodsa. In general
Art. 335b b. During the probation period
Art. 335c c. After the probation period
Art. 335d IIbis. Mass redundancies1. Definition
Art. 335e 2. Scope of application
Art. 335f 3. Consultation of employees’ organisation
Art. 335g 4. Procedure
Art. 335h 5. Social plana. Definition and principles
Art. 335i b. Duty to negotiate
Art. 335j c. Preparation by an arbitral tribunal
Art. 335k d. During bankruptcy or composition proceedings
Art. 336 III. Protection from termination1. Wrongful terminationa. General principle
Art. 336a b. Penalties
Art. 336b c. Procedure
Art. 336c 2. Termination at an inopportune juncturea. By the employer
Art. 336d b. By the employee
Art. 337 IV. Termination with immediate effect1. Requirementsa. For good cause
Art. 337a b. Salary at risk
Art. 337b 2. Consequencesa. Termination for good cause
Art. 337c b. Termination without just cause
Art. 337d c. Failure to take up post and departure without just cause
Art. 338 V. Death of the employee or employer1. Death of the employee
Art. 338a 2. Death of the employer
Art. 339 VI. Consequences of termination of the employment relationship 1. Maturity of claims
Art. 339a 2. Return
Art. 339b 3. Severance allowancea. Requirements
Art. 339c b. Amount and due date
Art. 339d c. Benefits in lieu of allowance
Art. 340 VII. Prohibition of competition1. Requirements
Art. 340a 2. Restrictions
Art. 340b 3. Consequences of infringement
Art. 340c 4. Extinction
Art. 341 H. No right of waiver and prescription
Art. 342 I. Reservation of public law and effects under civil law
Art. 343
Art. 344 I. Definition and conclusion1. Definition
Art. 344a 2. Conclusion and content
Art. 345 II. Effects1. Special obligations of the trainee and his legal representative
Art. 345a 2. Special obligations of the employer
Art. 346 III. Termination1. Early termination
Art. 346a 2. Certificate of apprenticeship
Art. 347 B. The Commercial Traveller’s ContractI. Definition and conclusion1. Definition
Art. 347a 2. Conclusion and content
Art. 348 II. Obligations and authority of the commercial traveller1. Special obligations
Art. 348a 2. Del credere
Art. 348b 3. Authority
Art. 349 III. Special obligations of the employer1. Area of activity
Art. 349a 2. Salarya. In general
Art. 349b b. Commission
Art. 349c c. Prevention from travelling
Art. 349d 3. Expenses
Art. 349e 4. Special lien
Art. 350 IV. Termination1. In special circumstances
Art. 350a 2. Special consequences
Art. 351 C. The Homeworker’s ContractI. Definition and conclusion1. Definition
Art. 351a 2. Notification of conditions
Art. 352 II. Special obligations of the home worker1. Performance of the work
Art. 352a 2. Materials and work tools
Art. 353 III. Special obligations of the employer1. Acceptance of completed work
Art. 353a 2. Salarya. Payment
Art. 353b b. When prevented from working
Art. 354 IV. Termination
Art. 355 D. Applicability of General Provisions
Art. 356 I. Definition, content, form and duration1. Definition and content
Art. 356a 2. Freedom of association and freedom to practise a profession
Art. 356b 3. Accession
Art. 356c 4. Form and duration
Art. 357 II. Effects1. On participating employers and employees
Art. 357a 2. On the contracting parties
Art. 357b 3. Joint enforcement
Art. 358 III. Relationship to mandatory law
Art. 359 B. The Standard Employment ContractI. Definition and content
Art. 359a II. Competent authorities and procedure
Art. 360 III. Effects
Art. 360a IV. Minimum wage1. Requirements
Art. 360b 2. Tripartite commissions
Art. 360c 3. Official secrecy
Art. 360d 4. Effects
Art. 360e 5. Associations’ right of action
Art. 360f 6. Notification
Art. 361 Section Four: Mandatory ProvisionsA. Provisions from which no derogation is permissible to the detriment of the employer or the employee
Art. 363 Title Eleven: The Work ContractA. Definition
Art. 364 B. Effects I. Contractor’s obligations 1. In general
Art. 365 2. Regarding materials
Art. 366 3. Prompt commencement and contractual production of the work
Art. 367 4. Liability for defectsa. Identification of defects
Art. 368 b. Rights of the customer in the event of defects
Art. 369 c. Customer’s liability
Art. 370 d. Approval of the work
Art. 371 e. Prescription
Art. 372 II. Customer’s obligations 1. Due date for payment
Art. 373 2. Amount of paymenta. Firm commitment
Art. 374 b. By the value of the work
Art. 375 C. TerminationI. Withdrawal because estimate exceeded
Art. 376 II. Destruction of the work
Art. 377 III. Withdrawal by the customer against indemnity
Art. 378 IV. Impossibility of performance for reasons attributable to the customer
Art. 379 V. Death or incapacity of the contractor
Art. 380 Title Twelve: The Publishing ContractA. Definition
Art. 381 B. Effects I. Transfer of copyright and warranty
Art. 382 II. Originator’s power of disposal
Art. 383 III. Number of editions
Art. 384 IV. Publication and sale
Art. 385 V. Improvements and corrections
Art. 386 VI. Collected and separate editions
Art. 387 VII. Translation rights
Art. 388 VIII. Author’s remuneration1. Amount
Art. 389 2. Due date for payment, record of sales and complimentary copies
Art. 390 C. TerminationI. Destruction of the work
Art. 391 II. Destruction of the edition
Art. 392 III. Grounds for termination pertaining to the person of the author or the publisher
Art. 393 D. Work on a project originated by the publisher
Art. 394 Title Thirteen: The MandateSection One: The Simple MandateA. Definition
Art. 395 B. Creation
Art. 396 C. EffectsI. Scope of the mandate
Art. 397 II. Obligations of the mandatee1. Compliance with instructions
Art. 397a 1bis. Duty to notify
Art. 398 2. Faithful performancea. In general
Art. 399 b. In the event of delegation
Art. 400 3. Account of agency
Art. 401 4. Transfer of acquired rights
Art. 402 III. Obligations of the mandator
Art. 403 IV. Liability of joint mandators and mandatees
Art. 404 D. TerminationI. Grounds1. Revocation, termination
Art. 405 2. Death, incapacity, bankruptcy
Art. 406 II. Effects of extinction of the contract
Art. 406a A. Definition and applicable law
Art. 406b B. Introduction of or to foreign nationalsI. Costs of return journey
Art. 406c II. Duty to obtain a licence
Art. 406d C. Form and content
Art. 406e D. Entry into force, revocation, notice of termination
Art. 406f E. ...
Art. 406g F. Information and data protection
Art. 406h G. Reduction
Art. 407 The Letter of Credit and the Loan Authorisation
Art. 408 B. Loan authorisation I. Definition and form
Art. 409 II. Incapacity of payee to enter into a contract
Art. 410 III. Payment extension granted on own authority
Art. 411 IV. Borrower and principal
Art. 412 Section Three: The Brokerage ContractA. Definition and form
Art. 413 B. Broker’s feeI. When due
Art. 414 II. Fixing the fee
Art. 415 III. Forfeiture
Art. 416 IV. ...
Art. 417 V. Excessive fees
Art. 418 C. Reservation of cantonal law
Art. 418a A. GeneralI. Definition
Art. 418b II. Applicable law
Art. 418c B. Obligations of the agentI. General and del credere
Art. 418d II. Duty of discretion and prohibition of competition
Art. 418e C. Powers of representation
Art. 418f D. Obligations of the principalI. In general
Art. 418g II. Commission1. On business facilitated and concludeda. Scope and entitlement
Art. 418h b. Lapse of entitlement
Art. 418i c. Due date
Art. 418k d. Statement of commission
Art. 418l 2. Collection commission
Art. 418m III. Inability to work
Art. 418n IV. Costs and expenses
Art. 418o V. Special lien
Art. 418p E. TerminationI. Expiry of duration
Art. 418q II. Notice of termination1. In general
Art. 418r 2. For good cause
Art. 418s III. Death, incapacity, bankruptcy
Art. 418t IV. Claims of the agent1. Commission
Art. 418u 2. Compensation for clientele
Art. 418v V. Duty of restitution
Art. 419 Title Fourteen: Agency without AuthorityA. Rights and obligations of the agentI. Manner of execution
Art. 420 II. Liability of the agent in general
Art. 421 III. Liability of agents lacking capacity to enter into contracts
Art. 422 B. Position of the principalI. Agency in the principal’s best interests
Art. 423 II. Business conducted in the agent’s interests
Art. 424 III. Approval of agency activities
Art. 425 Title Fifteen: The Commission ContractA. Buying and selling commission I. Definition
Art. 426 II. Obligations of the commission agent 1. Duty of notification, insurance
Art. 427 2. Treatment of goods on commission
Art. 428 3. Pricing by the principal
Art. 429 4. Advances and loans to third parties
Art. 430 5. Del credere
Art. 431 III. Rights of the commission agent1. Reimbursement of advances and expenses
Art. 432 2. Commissiona. Entitlement
Art. 433 b. Forfeiture and conversion into transaction for own account
Art. 434 3. Special lien
Art. 435 4. Sale of goods at auction
Art. 436 5. Agent acting for his own accounta. Pricing and commission
Art. 437 b. Presumption of trading for own account
Art. 438 c. Lapse of right to trade for own account
Art. 439 B. Forwarding contract
Art. 440 Title Sixteen: The Contract of CarriageA. Definition
Art. 441 B. Effects I. Obligations of the carrier1. Required information
Art. 442 2. Packaging
Art. 443 3. Power of disposal over freight
Art. 444 II. Position of the carrier1. Treatment of freighta. Delivery not possible
Art. 445 b. Sale
Art. 446 c. Liability
Art. 447 2. Liability of the carriera. Loss or destruction of the goods
Art. 448 b. Delay, damage, partial destruction
Art. 449 c. Liability for sub-contractors
Art. 450 3. Duty of notification
Art. 451 4. Lien
Art. 452 5. Forfeiture of liability claims
Art. 453 6. Procedure
Art. 454 7. Prescription of actions for damages
Art. 455 C. State-owned and licensed carriers
Art. 456 D. Use of state transport facilities
Art. 457 E. Liability of the forwarding agent
Art. 458 A. Registered power of attorneyI. Definition and conferral
Art. 459 II. Scope of authority
Art. 460 III. Restrictions
Art. 461 IV. Withdrawal
Art. 462 B. Other forms of commercial agency
Art. 463 C. ...
Art. 464 D. Prohibition of competition
Art. 465 E. Extinction of power of attorney and other forms of commercial agency
Art. 466 Title Eighteen: The Payment InstructionA. Definition
Art. 467 B. Effects I. Relations between principal and payee
Art. 468 II. Obligations of the agent
Art. 469 III. Duty to notify non-payment
Art. 470 C. Revocation
Art. 471 D. Payment instructions relating to securities
Art. 472 Title Nineteen: The Contract of BailmentA. Bailment in generalI. Definition
Art. 473 II. Obligations of the bailor
Art. 474 III. Obligations of the bailee1. Prohibition of use
Art. 475 2. Returna. Rights of the bailor
Art. 476 b. Rights of the bailee
Art. 477 c. Place of return
Art. 478 3. Liability of joint bailees
Art. 479 4. Third-party rights of title
Art. 480 IV. Official receiver
Art. 481 B. Bailment of fungibles
Art. 482 C. Warehousing businessI. Right to issue documents of title to goods
Art. 483 II. Warehouse keeper’s duty of safe-keeping
Art. 484 III. Intermingling of stored goods
Art. 485 IV. Rights of the warehouse keeper
Art. 486 V. Return of the goods
Art. 487 D. Inns, hotels and stablesI. Liability of hoteliers1. Conditions and scope
Art. 488 2. Specific liability for valuables
Art. 489 3. End of liability
Art. 490 II. Liability of stable owners
Art. 491 III. Lien
Art. 492 A. RequirementsI. Definition
Art. 493 II. Form
Art. 494 III. Spouse’s consent
Art. 495 B. SubstanceI. Particularities of different types of surety1. Simple surety
Art. 496 2. Joint and several surety
Art. 497 3. Co-surety
Art. 498 4. Collateral surety and counter-surety
Art. 499 II. Common provisions 1. Relationship between the surety and the creditora. Scope of liability
Art. 500 b. Reduction of liability by court order
Art. 501 c. Resort to the surety
Art. 502 d. Defences
Art. 503 e. Creditor’s duty of diligence and duty to release documents and pledges
Art. 504 f. Right to demand acceptance of payment
Art. 505 g. Creditor’s duty to notify and to register his claim in bankruptcy and composition proceedings
Art. 506 2. Relationship between surety and principal debtora. Right to security and release
Art. 507 b. Surety’s right of recourse aa. In general
Art. 508 bb. Surety’s duty to notify
Art. 509 C. Termination of the contract of suretyI. By operation of law
Art. 510 II. Fixed-term contract of surety; revocation
Art. 511 III. Open-ended contract of surety
Art. 512 IV. Contracts of surety for official and civil service obligations
Art. 513 Title Twenty-One: Gambling and BettingA. No actionable claim
Art. 514 B. Debentures and voluntary payment
Art. 515 C. Lotteries and prize draws
Art. 515a D. Gambling in casinos, loans from casinos
Art. 516 Life Annuity and the Lifetime Maintenance Agreements
Art. 517 II. Formal requirement
Art. 518 III. Rights of the annuitant1. Exercise of entitlement
Art. 519
Art. 520 IV. Life annuities under the law governing insurance policies
Art. 521 B. Lifetime maintenance agreementI. Definition
Art. 522 II. Conclusion1. Form
Art. 523 2. Security
Art. 524 III. Content
Art. 525 IV. Challenge and reduction
Art. 526 V. Termination1. Notice
Art. 527 2. Unilateral termination
Art. 528 3. Termination on the death of the settlor
Art. 529 VI. Non-transferable claim, asserting claim in the event of bankruptcy and seizure
Art. 530 Title Twenty-Three: The Simple PartnershipA. Definition
Art. 531 B. Relationship between partners I. Contributions
Art. 532 II. Profit and loss1. Profit sharing
Art. 533 2. Participation in profits and losses
Art. 534 III. Partnership resolutions
Art. 535 IV. Management of partnership business
Art. 536 V. Liability between partners1. Prohibition of competition
Art. 537 2. Claims arising from partnership activities
Art. 538 3. Due diligence
Art. 539 VI. Withdrawal and restriction of management authority
Art. 540 VII. Managing partners and other partners1. In general
Art. 541 2. Right to information on the affairs of the partnership
Art. 542 VIII. Admission of new partners and sub-participation
Art. 543 C. Relationship between partners and third partiesI. Representation
Art. 544 II. Effects of representation
Art. 545 D. Dissolution I. Grounds for dissolution1. In general
Art. 546 2. Partnership of indefinite duration
Art. 547 II. Effect of dissolution on business management
Art. 548 III. Liquidation1. Treatment of contributions
Art. 549 2. Division of surplus and deficit
Art. 550 3. Liquidation method
Art. 551 IV. Liability towards third parties
Art. 552 Title Twenty-Four: The General PartnershipSection One: Definition and FormationA. Commercial partnerships
Art. 553 B. Non-commercial partnerships
Art. 554 C. Entry in the commercial registerI. Place of registration
Art. 555 II. Representation
Art. 556 III. Formal requirements
Art. 557 Section Two: Relationship between PartnersA. Freedom of contract, reference to simple partnership
Art. 558
Art. 559 C. Entitlement to profit, interest and fees
Art. 560 D. Losses
Art. 561 E. Prohibition of competition
Art. 562 Relationship between the Partnership and Third Parties
Art. 563 B. RepresentationI. General principle
Art. 564 II. Scope
Art. 565 III. Withdrawal
Art. 566 IV. Registered power of attorney and commercial agency
Art. 567 V. Transactions and liability in tort
Art. 568 C. Position of creditorsI. Partners’ liability
Art. 569 II. Liability of new partners
Art. 570 III. Insolvency of the partnership
Art. 571 IV. Insolvency of the partnership and bankruptcy of the partners
Art. 572 D. Position of personal creditors of partners
Art. 573 E. Set off
Art. 574 Section Four: Dissolution and WithdrawalA. In general
Art. 575 B. Termination by personal creditors
Art. 576 C. Withdrawal of partnersI. Agreement
Art. 577 II. Exclusion by court order
Art. 578 III. Exclusion by the other partners
Art. 579 IV. In the case of two partners
Art. 580 V. Determining the share
Art. 581 VI. Registration
Art. 581a D. Defects in the organisation of the partnership
Art. 582 Section Five: LiquidationA. General principle
Art. 583 B. Liquidators
Art. 584 C. Representation of heirs
Art. 585 D. Rights and obligations of the liquidators
Art. 586 E. Provisional distribution
Art. 587 F. DivisionI. Balance sheet
Art. 588 II. Repayment of capital and distribution of surplus
Art. 589 G. Deletion from the commercial register
Art. 590 H. Archiving of ledgers and other documents
Art. 591 Section Six: PrescriptionA. Object and prescriptive period
Art. 592 B. Special casesC. Interruption
Art. 594 Title Twenty-Five: The Limited PartnershipSection One: Definition and FormationA. Commercial partnerships
Art. 595 B. Non-commercial partnerships
Art. 596
Art. 597 II. Formal requirements
Art. 598 Section Two: Relationship between PartnersA. Freedom of contract, reference to general partnership
Art. 599 B. Management of business
Art. 600 C. Position of limited partners
Art. 601 D. Share in profit and loss
Art. 602 Relationship between the Partnership and Third Parties
Art. 603 B. Representation
Art. 604 C. Liability of general partners
Art. 605 D. Liability of limited partnersI. Acting for the partnership
Art. 606 II. Lack of registration
Art. 607 III. ...
Art. 608 IV. Scope of liability
Art. 609 V. Reduction of limited partner’s specific contribution
Art. 610 VI. Creditors’ right of action
Art. 611 VII. Entitlement to interest and profit
Art. 612 VIII. Joining limited partnerships
Art. 613 E. Position of personal creditors
Art. 614 F. Set off
Art. 615 G. Insolvency I. In general
Art. 616 II. Insolvency of the partnership
Art. 617 III. Procedure against general partners
Art. 618 IV. Bankruptcy of limited partners
Art. 619 Section Four: Dissolution, Liquidation, Prescription
Art. 620 Section One: General ProvisionsA. Definition
Art. 621 B. Share capital
Art. 622 C. SharesI. Types
Art. 623 II. Splitting and consolidating shares
Art. 624 III. Issue price
Art. 625
Art. 626
Art. 627
Art. 629
Art. 630 2. Share subscriptionII. Supporting documents
Art. 632 III. Capital contributions1. Minimum contribution
Art. 633 contributions
Art. 634 b. Contributions in kind
Art. 634a c. Offset with a claim
Art. 634b d. Subsequent contribution
Art. 635 3. Verification of capital contributionsa. Statutory report
Art. 635a b. Audit confirmation
Art. 636 IV. Special privileges
Art. 637639
Art. 640
Art. 641 II. ...
Art. 642 III. …
Art. 643
Art. 644
Art. 645 III. Obligations contracted prior to entry
Art. 646
Art. 647 H. Amendment of the articles of association
Art. 648
Art. 650 I. Ordinary capital increase1. Resolution of the general meeting
Art. 651
Art. 651a
Art. 652
Art. 652a
Art. 652b
Art. 652c
Art. 652d
Art. 652e
Art. 652f
Art. 652g 8. Amendment of articles of association and statements from the board of directors
Art. 652h 9. Nullity of shares issued before registration
Art. 653 II. Increase from contingent capital1. General principle
Art. 653a 2. Restrictions
Art. 653b 3. Basis in articles of association
Art. 653c 4. Protection of shareholders
Art. 653d 5. Protection of beneficiaries of conversion or option rights
Art. 653e 6. Execution of capital increasea. Exercise of rights; capital contribution
Art. 653f b. Audit confirmation
Art. 653g c. Amendment of the articles of association and statements of the board of directors
Art. 653h
Art. 653i 7. Deletion
Art. 653j III. Reducing the share capital1. Ordinary capital reductiona. Principles
Art. 653k b. Securing claims
Art. 653l c. Interim account
Art. 653m d. Audit confirmation
Art. 653n e. Resolution of the general meeting
Art. 653o f. Amendment of the articles of association and declarations of the board of directors; Entry in the commercial register
Art. 653p 2. Capital reduction in the event of negative net worth
Art. 653q 3. Simultaneous reduction and increase in share capital a. Principle
Art. 653r b. Cancellation of shares
Art. 653s IV. Capital band1. Authorisation
Art. 653t 2. Principles in the articles of association
Art. 653u 3. Increasing and reducing the share capital within the capital band
Art. 653v 4. Increase or reduction of the share capital by the general meeting
Art. 654
Art. 655
Art. 656
Art. 656a
Art. 656b II. Participation and share capital
Art. 656c general
Art. 656d
Art. 656e 3. Representation on the board of directors
Art. 656f general
Art. 656g b. Subscription rights
Art. 657
Art. 658
Art. 659 L. Own sharesI. Requirements for and restrictions on acquisition
Art. 659a of acquisition
Art. 659b III. Own shares in the group
Art. 660 general
Art. 661 II. Calculation method
Art. 662
Art. 662a
Art. 663
Art. 663a
Art. 663bbis
Art. 663c
Art. 663
Art. 664
Art. 665a
Art. 666
Art. 668
Art. 669
Art. 670
Art. 671 C. ReservesI. Statutory capital reserve
Art. 671a
Art. 672 II. Statutory retained earnings
Art. 673 III. Voluntary retained earnings
Art. 674 IV. Offsetting losses
Art. 675 D. Dividends, interest before commencement of operations and shares of profits paid to board membersI. Dividends
Art. 675a II. Interim dividends
Art. 676
Art. 677
Art. 678 general
Art. 678a II. Prescription
Art. 679
Art. 680 F. . Shareholder’s duty to contributeI. Object
Art. 681 II. Consequences of default1. By law and the articles of association
Art. 682 2. Call for performance
Art. 683 G. Issue and transfer of sharesI. Bearer shares
Art. 684 II. Registered shares
Art. 685 H. Restricted transferabilityI. Statutory restriction
Art. 685a II. Restrictions under the articles of association1. General principles
Art. 685b 2. Unlisted registered sharesa. Requirements for refusal
Art. 685c b. Effect
Art. 685d 3. Listed registered sharesa. Requirements for refusal
Art. 685e b. Duty of notification
Art. 685f c. Transfer of rights
Art. 685g d. Time limit for refusal
Art. 686 4. Share registera. Entry
Art. 686a b. Deletion
Art. 687
Art. 688 III. Interim certificates
Art. 689 J. Personal membership rightsI. Teilnahme an the general meeting1. General principle
Art. 689a 2. Entitlement against the company
Art. 689b general
Art. 689c b. Independent voting representative in companies whose shares are listed on a stock exchange
Art. 689d c. Independent voting representative and delegation of the voting right of corporate bodies in companies whose shares are not listed on a stock exchange
Art. 689e d. Delegation of voting rights to custodian banks in companies whose shares are not listed on a stock exchange
Art. 689f e. Disclosure
Art. 690
Art. 691 II. Unauthorised participation
Art. 692 III. Voting rights at general meetings of shareholders1. General principle
Art. 693 2. Shares with privileged right to vote
Art. 694 3. Entitlement to exercise right to vote
Art. 695 4. Exclusion of right to vote
Art. 696
Art. 697 IV. Right to information and to inspect1. Right to information
Art. 697a 2. Right to inspect
Art. 697b 3. Refusal of the request for information or to inspect
Art. 697c V. Right to instigate a special investigation1. With approval of the general meeting
Art. 697d 2. If the motion is rejected by the general meeting
Art. 697e 3. Procedure before the court
Art. 697f 4. Conduct of the special investigation
Art. 697g 5. Report
Art. 697h 6. Procedure and publication
Art. 697hbis 7. Costs of the special investigation
Art. 697i
Art. 697j K. Obligation of shareholder to give noticeI. Notice of beneficial owner of shares
Art. 697k
Art. 697l II. Register of beneficial owners
Art. 697m
Art. 697n L. Arbitral tribunal
Art. 698 A. The General MeetingI. Powers
Art. 699 II. Convening and conducting the general meeting1. Method of convening the meeting
Art. 699a 2. Notice of the annual report
Art. 699b 3. Right to table agenda items and motions
Art. 700 4. Content of the notice convening the meeting
Art. 701 5. Universal meeting and consent to a motion
Art. 701a general
Art. 701b b. Foreign venue
Art. 701c 7. Use of electronic meansa. Exercise of shareholder rights
Art. 701d b. Virtual general meeting
Art. 701e c. Requirements for the use of electronic means
Art. 701f d. Technical problems
Art. 702 III. Preparatory measures; minutes
Art. 702a IV. Right of members of the board of directors and the executive board to make a statement; Right of the board of directors to table motions
Art. 703 general
Art. 704 resolutions
Art. 704a 3. Conversion of bearer shares into registered shares
Art. 704b 4. Notice the items on the agenda
Art. 705
Art. 706
Art. 706a 2. Procedure
Art. 706b
Art. 707
Art. 708
Art. 709
Art. 710 3. Term of office
Art. 711
Art. 712 II. Organisation1. Chair
Art. 713 2. Resolutions
Art. 714 resolutions
Art. 715 4. Right to convene meetings
Art. 715a 5. Right to information and of inspection
Art. 716 general
Art. 716a 2. Non-transferable duties
Art. 716b 3. Delegation of business management
Art. 717
Art. 717a 2. Conflicts of interest
Art. 718 general
Art. 718a 2. Scope and restriction
Art. 718b its representative
Art. 719
Art. 720
Art. 721
Art. 722
Art. 723724
Art. 725 VII. Imminent insolvency, loss of capital and overindebtedness1. Imminent Insolvency
Art. 725a 2. Capital loss
Art. 725b 3.Overindebtedness
Art. 725c 4. Revaluation of immovable property and participations
Art. 726
Art. 727 I. Audit requirement1. Ordinary audit
Art. 727a 2. Limited audit
Art. 727b II. Requirements for the external auditor1. In an ordinary audit
Art. 727c 2. In a limited audit
Art. 728 III. Ordinary audit1. Independence of the external auditor
Art. 728a 2. Duties of the external auditora. Object and extent of the audit
Art. 728b b. Audit report
Art. 728c c. Duties to notify
Art. 729
Art. 729a 2. Duties of the external auditora. Object and extent of the audit
Art. 729b b. Audit report
Art. 729c c. Duty to notify
Art. 730 V. Common provisions1. Appointment of the external auditor
Art. 730a 2. Term of office of the external auditor
Art. 730b 3. Information and confidentiality
Art. 730c 4. Documentation and retention
Art. 731 5. Approval of the accounts and allocation of profits
Art. 731a 6. Special provisions
Art. 731b
Art. 732 A. Scope of application
Art. 732a
Art. 733 B. Remuneration committee
Art. 734 general
Art. 734a II. Remuneration of the board of directors, the executive board and the board of advisors
Art. 734b III. Loans and credit facilities for the board of directors, the executive board and the board of advisors
Art. 734c IV. Remuneration, loans and credit facilities granted to close associates
Art. 734d V. Participation rights and options on such rights
Art. 734e VI. Activities in other undertakings
Art. 734f VII. Gender representation of on the board of directors and in the executive board
Art. 735 D. Voting in the general meetingI. Remuneration
Art. 735a II. Additional amount for the executive board
Art. 735b E. Term of contracts
Art. 735c F. Remuneration that is not permittedI. In the company
Art. 735d II. In the group
Art. 736 Section Five: Dissolution of a Company Limited by SharesA. Dissolution in generalI. Grounds
Art. 737 II. Entry in the commercial register
Art. 738 III. Consequences
Art. 739 powers
Art. 740
Art. 741 2. Dismissal
Art. 742 call on creditors
Art. 743 2. Other duties
Art. 744 3. Protection of creditors
Art. 745 4. Distribution of assets
Art. 746 IV. Deletion from the commercial register
Art. 747 V. Retention of the share register, accounting records and register
Art. 748750 C. Dissolution without liquidationI. ...
Art. 751 II. Takeover by a public sector corporation
Art. 752 Section Six: LiabilityA. LiabilityI. ...
Art. 753 II. Founder members’ liability
Art. 754 III. Liability for administration, business management and liquidation
Art. 755 IV. External auditors’ liability
Art. 756 B. Damage to the companyI. Claims outside insolvency
Art. 757 II. Claims in bankruptcy
Art. 758 III. Effect of the resolution of release
Art. 759 C. Joint and several liability and recourse
Art. 760 D. Prescription
Art. 761
Art. 762 Involvement of Public Sector Corporations
Art. 763 Exclusion of Application of the Code to Public-Sector Entities
Art. 764 The Partnership limited by Shares
Art. 765 B. DirectorsI. Designation and powers
Art. 766 II. Approval of resolutions of the general meeting
Art. 767 III. Withdrawal of authority to manage business and represent the partnership
Art. 768 C. Supervisory boardI. Appointment and powers
Art. 769 II. Liability action
Art. 770 D. Dissolution
Art. 771 E. Resignation
Art. 772 Section One: General ProvisionsA. Definition
Art. 773 capital
Art. 774 C. Capital contributions
Art. 774a D. Dividend rights certificates
Art. 775 E. …
Art. 776 F. Articles of associationI. Content prescribed by law
Art. 776a II. ...
Art. 777 G. FoundationI. deed of incorporation
Art. 777a II. Subscription for capital contributions
Art. 777b III. Documents
Art. 777c IV. Capital contributions
Art. 778 H. Entry in the commercial registerI. Company
Art. 778a II. ...
Art. 779 J. Acquisition of legal personalityI. Time; Failure to meet requirements
Art. 779a II. Obligations entered into before registration
Art. 780 K. Amendment of the articles of association
Art. 781 L. Increase in the nominal capital
Art. 782 M. Reduction of the nominal capital
Art. 783 N. Acquisition of own capital contributions
Art. 784 Section Two: Rights and Obligations of Company MembersA. Capital contributionsI. Official document
Art. 785 II. Transfer1. Assignmenta. Form
Art. 786 b. Consent requirements
Art. 787 c. Transfer of rights
Art. 788 2. Special forms of acquisition
Art. 789 3. Determining the true value
Art. 789a 4. Usufruct
Art. 789b 5. Charge
Art. 790 III. Register of contributions
Art. 790a IIIbis. Notice of the beneficial owner of the capital contributions
Art. 791 IV. Entry in the commercial register
Art. 792 V. Common property
Art. 793 B. Payment of capital contributions
Art. 794 C. Liability of the company members
Art. 795 I. Additional financial contributions1. Principle and amount
Art. 795a 2. Call for additional financial contributions
Art. 795b 3. Repayment
Art. 795c 4. Reduction
Art. 795d 5. Continuation
Art. 796 II. Further material contributions
Art. 797 III. Retrospective introduction
Art. 797a IV. Arbitral tribunal
Art. 798 E. Dividends, interest, shares of profits paid to board members
Art. 798a
Art. 799 F. Preferential capital contributions
Art. 800 G. Refund of payments
Art. 801 H. Reserves
Art. 801a J. Sending the annual report
Art. 802 K. Right to information and of inspection
Art. 803 L. Duty of loyalty and prohibition of competition
Art. 804 Section Three: Organisation of the CompanyA. Members' general meetingI. Responsibilities
Art. 805 II. Convening and conduct of the meeting
Art. 806 III. Voting rights1. Determination
Art. 806a 2. Exclusion of the right to vote
Art. 806b 3. Usufruct
Art. 807 IV. Right of veto
Art. 808 general
Art. 808a 2. Casting vote
Art. 808b 3. Important resolutions
Art. 808c VI. Contesting resolutions of the members' general meeting
Art. 809 B. Management and representationI. Designation the managing director and organisation
Art. 810 II. Duties of the managing directors
Art. 811 III. Approval by the members' general meeting
Art. 812 IV. Duty of care and of loyalty; prohibition of competition
Art. 813 V. Equal treatment
Art. 814 VI. Representation
Art. 815 VII. Removal of managing directors; Revocation of the right to represent the company
Art. 816 VIII. Nullity of decisions
Art. 817 IX. Liability
Art. 818 C. External auditor
Art. 819 D. Defects in the Organisation of the Company
Art. 820 E. Imminent insolvency, loss of capital and overindebtedness
Art. 821 Section Four: Dissolution and ResignationA. DissolutionI. Grounds
Art. 821a II. Consequences
Art. 822 B. Resignation of company membersI. Resignation
Art. 822a II. Follow-up resignations
Art. 823 III. Exclusion
Art. 824 IV. Interim measures
Art. 825 V. Financial settlement1. Entitlement and amount
Art. 825a 2. Payment
Art. 826 C. Liquidation
Art. 827 Section Five: Liability
Art. 828 Title Twenty-Nine: The CooperativeSection One: Definition and FoundationA. Cooperatives under the Code of Obligations
Art. 829 B. Cooperatives under public law
Art. 830 C. FoundationI. Requirements1. In general
Art. 831 2. Number of members
Art. 832 II. Articles of association1. Content prescribed by law
Art. 833 2. Further provisions
Art. 834 III. Constituent assembly
Art. 835 IV. Entry in the commercial register1. Cooperative
Art. 836 2. ...
Art. 837 3. Register of members
Art. 838 V. Acquisition of legal personality
Art. 838a D. Amendment of the articles of association
Art. 839 Section Two: Acquisition of MembershipA. General principle
Art. 840 B. Declaration of accession
Art. 841 C. In connection with an insurance policy
Art. 842 Section Three: Loss of MembershipA. DepartureI. Freedom to leave
Art. 843 II. Restriction of departure
Art. 844 III. Notice and timing of departure
Art. 845 IV. Exercise in bankruptcy and attachment
Art. 846 B. Exclusion
Art. 847 C. Death of a member
Art. 848 D. Lapse of office, employment or contract
Art. 849 E. Transfer of membershipI. In general
Art. 850 II. By transfer of land or commercial exploitation
Art. 851 F. Departure of the legal successor
Art. 852 Section Four: Rights and Obligations of the MembersA. Proof of membership
Art. 853 B. Share certificates
Art. 854 C. Equality
Art. 855 D. RightsI. Voting right
Art. 856
Art. 857 2. Release of information
Art. 858 1. ...
Art. 859 2. Profit distribution principles
Art. 860 3. Duty to form and accumulate a reserve fund
Art. 861 4. Annual profit at credit cooperatives
Art. 862 5. Welfare funds
Art. 863 6. Further allocations to reserves
Art. 864 IV. Entitlement to settlement1. Under the articles of association
Art. 865 2. By law
Art. 866 E. DutiesI. Duty of loyalty
Art. 867 II. Duty to make contributions
Art. 868 III. Liability1. Of the cooperative
Art. 869 2. Of the membersa. Unlimited liability
Art. 870 b. Limited liability
Art. 871 c. Liability to make additional contributions
Art. 872 d. Inadmissible restrictions
Art. 873 e. Procedure in insolvency
Art. 874 f. Amendment of liability provisions
Art. 875 g. Liability of new members
Art. 876 h. Liability after departure or dissolution
Art. 877 i. Notification of accessions and departures for entry in the commercial register
Art. 878 k. Prescriptive periods for liability
Art. 879 Section Five: Organisation of the CooperativeA. General assembly of membersI. Powers
Art. 880 II. Ballot
Art. 881 III. Convening the general assembly 1. Right and duty
Art. 882 2. Form
Art. 883 3. Agenda items
Art. 884 4. Universal meeting
Art. 885 IV. Voting rights
Art. 886 V. Representation
Art. 887 VI. Exclusion of right to vote
Art. 888 VII. Resolutions 1. In general
Art. 889 2. Increase of members’ obligations
Art. 890
Art. 891 IX. Challenging resolutions of the general assembly
Art. 892 X. Assembly of delegates
Art. 893 XI. Exceptions for insurance cooperatives
Art. 893a XII. Venue and use of electronic means
Art. 894 B. BoardI. Eligibility1. Membership
Art. 895 2....
Art. 896 II. Term of office
Art. 897 III. Administrative committees
Art. 898 IV. Business management and representation1. Delegation
Art. 899 2. Scope and restriction
Art. 899a 3. Contracts between the cooperative and its representatives
Art. 900
Art. 901 5. …
Art. 902 V. Duties1. In general
Art. 902a 2. Repayment of contributions
Art. 903 3. Imminent insolvency, loss of capital and overindebtedness
Art. 904 VI. Return of payments to members
Art. 905 VII. Dismissal and suspension
Art. 906 C. External auditorI. In general
Art. 907 II. Verification of the membership list
Art. 908 D. Defects in organisation
Art. 909
Art. 911 Section Six: Dissolution of the CooperativeA. Grounds for dissolution
Art. 912 B. Entry in the commercial register
Art. 913 C. Liquidation, distribution of assets
Art. 914 D. ...
Art. 915 E. Takeover by a public sector corporation
Art. 916 Section Seven: LiabilityA. Liability to the cooperative
Art. 917 B. Liability to the cooperative, members and creditors
Art. 918 C. Joint and several liability and recourse
Art. 919 D. Prescription
Art. 920 E. Liability in credit and insurance cooperatives
Art. 921 Section Eight: Cooperative UnionsA. Requirements
Art. 922 B. OrganisationI. Assembly of delegates
Art. 923 II. Board
Art. 924 III. Monitoring, challenge
Art. 925 IV. Exclusion of new obligations
Art. 926 Section Nine: Involvement of Public Sector Corporations
Art. 927 A. Definition and purpose
Art. 928 B. OrganisationI. Commercial register authorities
Art. 928a II. Cooperation between authorities
Art. 928b C. Central databases
Art. 928c
Art. 929 E. Registration, amendment and deletionI. Principles
Art. 930 II. Business identification number
Art. 931 III. Obligation to register and voluntary registration1. Sole proprietorships and branch offices
Art. 932 2. Public institutions
Art. 933 IV. Change in facts
Art. 934 V. Ex officio deletion1. Legal entities without business operations and without assets
Art. 934a 2. In the event of a sole proprietorship or branch office having no domicile
Art. 935 VI. Reinstatement
Art. 936 F. Publicity and effectivenessI. Publicity and publication on the internet
Art. 936a II. Publication in the Swiss Official Commercial Gazette and start of effectiveness
Art. 936b III. Effects
Art. 937 G. ObligationsI. Obligation to verify
Art. 938 II. Request and ex officio recording
Art. 939 III. Organisational defects
Art. 940 H. Fixed penalties
Art. 941 I. Fees
Art. 942 J. Legal remedies
Art. 943 K. Ordinance
Art. 944 Title Thirty-One: Business NamesA. General principles of business name compositionI. General provisions
Art. 945
Art. 946 2. Exclusivity of the registered business name
Art. 947
Art. 949
Art. 950 III. Company names1. Composition of the business name
Art. 951 2. Exclusivity of the registered business name
Art. 952 IV. Branch offices
Art. 953 V. ...
Art. 954 VI. Change of name
Art. 954a B. Obligation to use business and other names
Art. 955
Art. 955a D. Reservation of other provisions of federal law
Art. 956
Art. 957 Section One: General ProvisionsA. Duty to keep accounts and file financial reports
Art. 957a B. Accounting
Art. 958 C. Financial reportingI. Aim and constituent elements
Art. 958a II. Principles of financial reporting1. Going-concern assumption
Art. 958b 2. Chronological and material distinction
Art. 958c III. Recognised financial reporting principles
Art. 958d IV. Presentation, currency and language
Art. 958e
Art. 958f E. Keeping and retaining accounting records
Art. 959 A. Balance sheetI. Purpose of the balance sheet, duty to prepare a balance sheet and balance sheet eligibility
Art. 959a II. Minimum structure
Art. 959b B. Profit and loss account; minimum structure
Art. 959c C. Notes to the accounts
Art. 960 D. ValuationI. Principles
Art. 960a II. Assets1. In general
Art. 960b 2. Assets with observable market prices
Art. 960c 3. Inventories and non-invoiced services
Art. 960d 4. Capital assets
Art. 960e III. Liabilities
Art. 960f E. Interim account
Art. 961 Section Three: Financial Report for Larger UndertakingsA. Additional requirements for the annual report
Art. 961a B. Additional information in the notes to the annual accounts
Art. 961b C. Cash flow statement
Art. 961c D. Management report
Art. 961d
Art. 962 Section Four: Financial Statements in accordance with Recognised Financial Reporting StandardsA. General
Art. 962a B. Recognised financial reporting standards
Art. 963 Section Five: Consolidated AccountsA. Duty to prepare
Art. 963a B. Exemption from the duty to prepare accounts
Art. 963b C. Recognised financial reporting standards
Art. 964
Art. 964a A. Principle
Art. 964b B. Purpose and content of the report
Art. 964c C. Approval, publication, keeping and retaining
Art. 964d A. Principle
Art. 964e B. Forms of payment
Art. 964f C. Form and content of the report
Art. 964g D. Publication
Art. 964h E. Keeping and retaining the report
Art. 964i F. Extending the scope of application
Art. 964j A. Principle
Art. 964k B. Due diligence
Art. 964l C. Reporting
Art. 965 Section One: General ProvisionsA. Definition of negotiable security
Art. 966 B. Obligation under the security
Art. 967 C. Transfer of the securityI. General form
Art. 968 II. Endorsement1. Form
Art. 969 2. Effect
Art. 970 D. Conversion
Art. 971 E. CancellationI. Party requesting cancellation
Art. 972 II. Procedure, effect
Art. 973 F. Special provisions
Art. 973a I. Collective custody of negotiable securities
Art. 973b II. Global certificate
Art. 973c
Art. 973d I. Establishment
Art. 973e II. Effects
Art. 973f III. Transfer
Art. 973g IV. Collateral
Art. 973h V. Cancellation
Art. 973i VI. Information and liability
Art. 974 Section Two: Registered SecuritiesA. Definition
Art. 975 B. Evidence of creditor’s rightI. As a general rule
Art. 976 II. With qualified bearer securities
Art. 977 C. Cancellation
Art. 978 Section Three: Bearer Securities A. Definition
Art. 979 B. Obligor’s defencesI. In general
Art. 980 II. In the case of bearer coupons
Art. 981
Art. 982 2. Attachment order
Art. 983 3. Public call for presentation, time limit
Art. 984 4. Form of public notice
Art. 985 5. Effecta. Where the security is presented
Art. 986 b. Where the security is not presented
Art. 987 II. Of coupons in particular
Art. 988 III. In the case of banknotes and the like
Art. 989 D. Mortgage certificates
Art. 990 Section Four: Bills and NotesA. Capacity to incur Liability as a party to a Bill
Art. 991 B. The Bill of Exchange I. Drawing and Formal Requirements of Bills of Exchange1. Requirements
Art. 992 2. Required content lacking
Art. 993 3. Types
Art. 994 4. Payment of domiciled bills
Art. 995 5. Promise of interest
Art. 996 6. Discrepancy in specification of bill amount
Art. 997 7. Signatures of persons lacking capacity
Art. 998 8. Unauthorised signature
Art. 999 9. Liability of the drawer
Art. 1000 10. Blank bill
Art. 1001 II. Endorsement1. Transferability
Art. 1002 2. Requirements
Art. 1003 3. Form
Art. 1004 4. Effectsa. Transfer function
Art. 1005 b. Guarantee function
Art. 1006 c. Proof of bearer’s entitlement
Art. 1007 5. Defences
Art. 1008 6. Procuration endorsement
Art. 1009 7. Pledging endorsement
Art. 1010 8. Subsequent endorsement
Art. 1011 III. Acceptance1. Right to present bill
Art. 1012 2. Presentation compulsory or prohibited
Art. 1013 3. Duty to present after-sight bills
Art. 1014 4. Repeat presentation
Art. 1015 5. Form of acceptance
Art. 1016 6. Restrictions on acceptance
Art. 1017 7. Domiciliate and bill domicile
Art. 1018 8. Effect of acceptancea. In general
Art. 1019 b. In the case of deletion
Art. 1020 IV. Bill Guarantees1. Bill guarantor
Art. 1021 2. Form
Art. 1022 3. Effects
Art. 1023 V. Maturity1. In general
Art. 1024 2. In the case of sight bills
Art. 1025 3. In the case of after-sight bills
Art. 1026 4. Computation of time limits
Art. 1027 5. Computation by the old method
Art. 1028 VI. Payment1. Presentation for payment
Art. 1029 2. Right to receipt, part payment
Art. 1030 3. Payment before and at maturity
Art. 1031 4. Payment in foreign currency
Art. 1032 5. Deposit
Art. 1033 VII. Recourse in the event of Non-Acceptance and Non?Payment1. Recourse of the holder
Art. 1034 2. Protesta. Time limits and requirements
Art. 1035 b. Responsibility
Art. 1036 c. Content
Art. 1037 d. Form
Art. 1038 e. For partial acceptance
Art. 1039 f. Against several persons
Art. 1040 g. Copy of the protest document
Art. 1041 h. Defective protest
Art. 1042 3. Notification
Art. 1043 4. Waiver of protest
Art. 1044 5. Joint and several liability of the parties
Art. 1045 6. Nature of recoursea. By the holder
Art. 1046 b. By the party honouring the bill
Art. 1047 c. Right to take possession of bill, protest and receipt
Art. 1048 d. In respect of partial acceptance
Art. 1049 e. Re-exchange bill
Art. 1050 7. Invalidationa. In general
Art. 1051 b. Force majeure
Art. 1052 c. Unjust enrichment
Art. 1053 VIII. Devolution of Cover
Art. 1054 IX. Act of Honour1. General provisions
Art. 1055 2. Acceptance for honoura. Requirements, position of the holder
Art. 1056 b. Form
Art. 1057 c. Liability of the acceptor for honour, effect on right of recourse
Art. 1058 3. Payment for honoura. Requirements
Art. 1059 b. Obligation of the holder
Art. 1060 c. Consequence of refusal
Art. 1061 d. Right to take possession of bill, protest and receipt
Art. 1062 e. Devolution of the holder’s rights; multiple payments for honour
Art. 1063 1. Duplicatesa. Right to make duplicates
Art. 1064 b. Relationship between duplicates
Art. 1065 c. Acceptance comment
Art. 1066 2. Copiesa. Form and effect
Art. 1067 b. Surrender of the original bill
Art. 1068 XI. Amendments to the Bill of Exchange
Art. 1069 XII. Prescription1. Prescriptive periods
Art. 1070 2. Interruptiona. Grounds
Art. 1071 b. Effects
Art. 1072 XIII. Cancellation1. Provisional measures
Art. 1073 2. Known holder
Art. 1074 3. Unknown holdera. Duties of the applicant
Art. 1075 b. Public call for presentation
Art. 1076 c. Time limits
Art. 1077 d. Publication
Art. 1078 4. Effecta. If the bill is presented
Art. 1079 b. If the bill is not presented
Art. 1080 5. Court orders
Art. 1081 XIV. General Provisions1. Setting time limitsa. Holidays
Art. 1082 b. Computing time limits
Art. 1083 c. Exclusion of days of respite
Art. 1084 2. Place for actions in connection with bills of exchange
Art. 1085 3. Signature by hand; blind person’s signature
Art. 1086 XV. Applicable Jurisdiction1. Capacity to incur liability as a party to a bill
Art. 1087 2. Form and time limits of declaration on bills of exchangea. In general
Art. 1088 b. Actions to exercise and safeguard rights under bills of exchange
Art. 1089 c. Exercise of right of recourse
Art. 1090 3. Effect of declarations on bills of exchangea. In general
Art. 1091 b. Partial acceptance and part payment
Art. 1092 c. Payment
Art. 1093 d. Claims for unjust enrichment
Art. 1094 e. Devolution of cover
Art. 1095 f. Annulment
Art. 1096 C. The Promissory Note1. Requirements
Art. 1097 2. Required content lacking
Art. 1098 3. Reference to bill of exchange
Art. 1099 4. Liability of the maker; presentation for sight
Art. 1100 Section Five: The ChequeI. Issue and Formal Requirements of Cheques1. Requirements
Art. 1101 2. Required content lacking
Art. 1102 3. Capacity to act as drawee
Art. 1103 4. Cover requirement
Art. 1104 5. Exclusion of acceptance
Art. 1105 6. Designation of payee
Art. 1106 7. Interest comment
Art. 1107 8. Paying agents, domiciled cheques
Art. 1108 II. Transfer1. Transferability
Art. 1109 2. Requirements
Art. 1110 3. Proof of bearer’s entitlement
Art. 1111 4. Bearer cheque
Art. 1112 5. Lost cheques
Art. 1113 6. Rights stemming from subsequent endorsement
Art. 1114 III. Cheque Guarantees
Art. 1115 IV. Presentation and Payment1. Maturity
Art. 1116 2. Presentation for payment
Art. 1117 3. Computation by the old method
Art. 1118 4. Delivery to clearing house
Art. 1119 5. Revocationa. In general
Art. 1120 b. Death, incapacity, bankruptcy
Art. 1121 6. Verification of endorsements
Art. 1122 7. Payment in foreign currency
Art. 1123 V. The Crossed Cheque and the Account-Payee-Only Cheque1. Crossed chequesa. Definition
Art. 1124 b. Effects
Art. 1125 2. Account-payee-only cheques a. In general
Art. 1126 b. Bearer’s rights in the event of insolvency, suspension of payments, compulsory execution
Art. 1127 c. Bearer’s rights in the event of refusal of account credit or settlement
Art. 1128 VI. Recourse for Non-Payment1. Bearer’s rights of recourse
Art. 1129 2. Protest, time limits
Art. 1130 3. Object of recourse
Art. 1131 4. Exceptions in the case of force majeure
Art. 1132 VII. Forged Cheques
Art. 1133 VIII. Duplicates of a Cheque
Art. 1134 IX. Prescription
Art. 1135 X. General Provisions1. Definition of ‘banker’
Art. 1136 2. Setting time limitsa. Holidays
Art. 1137 b. Computing time limits
Art. 1138 XI. Applicable Jurisdiction1. Capacity to act as drawee of a cheque
Art. 1139 2. Form and time limits for declarations on cheques
Art. 1040 3. Effect of cheque declarations a. Law of the place of issue
Art. 1141 b. Law of the place of payment
Art. 1142 c. Law of domicile
Art. 1143 XII. Applicability of the Law on Bills of Exchange
Art. 1144 XIII. Reservation of Specific Law
Art. 1145 Bill-like Securities and Other Instruments to Order
Art. 1146 II. Defences of the obligor
Art. 1147 B. Bill-like securitiesI. Payment instructions to order1. In general
Art. 1148 2. No duty to accept
Art. 1149 3. Consequences of acceptance
Art. 1150 4. No enforcement of bills of exchange
Art. 1151 II. Promise to pay to order
Art. 1152 C. Other endorsable securities
Art. 1153
Art. 1153a II. Equivalent instruments in security ledgers
Art. 1154 B. The warrant
Art. 1155 C. Significance of the formal requirements
Art. 1156 Title Thirty-Four: BondsSection One: ...
Art. 1157 A. Requirements
Art. 1158 B. Bond representativeI. Appointment
Art. 1159 II. Powers1. In general
Art. 1160 2. Monitoring of the borrower
Art. 1161 3. In the case of bonds secured by a charge
Art. 1162 III. Lapse of authority
Art. 1163 IV. Costs
Art. 1164 C. Creditors’ meetingI. In general
Art. 1165 II. Convocation1. In general
Art. 1166 2. Moratorium
Art. 1167 III. Holding the meeting1. Voting right
Art. 1168 2. Representation of individual bond creditors
Art. 1169 IV. Procedure
Art. 1170 1. Admissibility and required majoritya. In the case of only one community of creditors
Art. 1171 b. In the case of several communities of creditors
Art. 1172 c. Determining the majority
Art. 1173 2. Restrictionsa. In general
Art. 1174 b. Equal treatment
Art. 1175 c. Statement and balance sheet
Art. 1176 3. Official approvala. In general
Art. 1177 b. Requirements
Art. 1178 c. Appeal
Art. 1179 d. Revocation
Art. 1180 II. Other resolutions1. Authority of the bond representative
Art. 1181 2. On other matters
Art. 1182 3. Challenge
Art. 1183 E. Special casesI. Insolvency of the borrower
Art. 1184 II. Composition agreement
Art. 1185 III. Bonds issued by railway or inland waterways transport companies
Art. 1186 F. Differing agreements
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